1 Introduction

Currently Noosphere does not support entries written in languages other than English, but it is possible to include text in foreign languages. This document explains how to do that.

2 Accents

Most Latin languages use accents above the letters. In English there are two letters that have accents, ‘i’ and ‘j’, and they can be typeset by typing them directly. Any other letter can be typed as \{accent}{letter} where accent is any one of the accents in the table below and letter is any letter except ‘i’ and ‘j’. That would produce accent accent on top of letter letter. In order to replace the dot in ‘i’ or ‘j’ by some other accent use \{accent}\i and \{accent}\j. If accent is a letter, then the letter has to be enclosed in braces.

Accent Code Example(code) Example(result)
Acute \’ \’a \’\i á í
Grave \‘ \‘a \‘\i à ì
Circumflex \^ \^a \^\i â î
Tilde \~ \~a \~\i ã ĩ
Diaeresis \" \"a \"\i ä ï
Double acute \H \H{o} \H{e} ő e̋
Caron \v \v{c} \v{D} č Ď

3 Typing directly

If your keyboard allows the input of characters in latin alphabet like é, ñ, ÃÂ^2, ÃÂ, ë, you may use them directly in your entries by including


on your document preamble. Users of Macintosh computers should use applemac instead of latin1. Some other available encondings are cp1250, cp1257, macce for users of eastern and central europe, baltic, Macintosh central Europe encodings. Package inputenc.sty obsoletes the packages isolatin.sty and umlaut.sty (see An essential guide to LaTex 2ε usage )

If you have a Unicode-complaint browser and you know how to type the foreign characters directly, you may do so. Currently, this is only supported for most characters found in Latin languages, and for Russian language. If you would like to see support for another language, please file a bug report which includes the Unicode range of the characters you want and their TeX encodings. Note: Noosphere does not support direct typing of foreign characters in titles. Please, use accent commands and \cyrXXX commands (see below).

4 Russian

In order to type Russian text the following lines have to be added to the preamble:


Russian text can be entered directly or if your browser or operating system does not support Unicode, by means of the following commands:

Name Look Code Name Look Code
A а А \cyra \CYRA Er р Р \cyrr \CYRR
Be б Б \cyrb \CYRB Es с С \cyrs \CYRS
Ve в В \cyrv \CYRV Te т Т \cyrt \CYRT
Ghe г Г \cyrg \CYRG U у У \cyru \CYRU
De д Д \cyrd \CYRD Ef ф Ф \cyrf \CYRF
Ye е Е \cyre \CYRE Ha х Х \cyrh \CYRH
Yo ё Ё \cyryo \CYRYO Tse ц Ц \cyrc \CYRC
Zhe ж Ж \cyrzh \CYRZH Che ч Ч \cyrch \CYRCH
Ze з З \cyrz \CYRZ Sha ш Ш \cyrsh \CYRSH
I и И \cyri \CYRI Shcha щ Щ \cyrchsh \CYRCHSH
I short й Й \cyrishrt \CYRISHRT Hard sign ъ Ъ \cyrhrdsn \CYRHRDSN
Ka к К \cyrk \CYRK Yeru ы Ы \cyrery \CYRERY
El л Л \cyrl \CYRL Soft sign ь Ь \cyrsftsn \CYRSFTSN
Em м М \cyrm \CYRM E э Э \cyrever \CYREREV
En н Н \cyrn \CYRN Yu ю Ю \cyryu \CYRYU
O о О \cyro \CYRO Ya я Я \cyrya \CYRYA
Pe п П \cyrp \CYRP

5 Cédilles

French, Portuguese, and Romanian use letters containing diacritical markings called cédilles.

Name Code Example(code) Example(result)
cédille \c \c{c} \c{s} \c{t} ç ş ţ

6 Ligatures

TeX will make the ligatures for ‘‘fi’’ and ‘‘fl’’ automatically. The German ligature ‘‘ß’’ (for ‘‘ss’’) will only be made if explicitly indicated, by {\ss}. (There is one other way, but this way generally works better with Noosphere.)

Title Internationalization
Canonical name Internationalization1
Date of creation 2013-03-11 19:21:09
Last modified on 2013-03-11 19:21:09
Owner bbukh (348)
Last modified by (0)
Numerical id 1
Author bbukh (0)
Entry type Definition